Hydrazinium 5-Aminotetrazolate: an Insensitive
Energetic Material Containing 83.72% Nitrogen

 

 

Niko FISCHER, Thomas M. KLAPÖTKE,
Susanne SCHEUTZOW and Jörg STIERSTORFER

Munich, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,
Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich


Abstract: Hydrazinium 5-aminotetrazolate (2) was synthesized via two facile
routes. Both the reaction of 5-amino-1H-tetrazole (1) with hydrazine hydrate in
aqueous solution and the reaction of 1 with diluted hydrazine solution in THF yield
2 in excellent purities and yields. 2 was characterized comprehensively by X-ray
diffraction, IR, Raman and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry,
elemental analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The heat of formation
was calculated (CMS-4M) using the atomization method to be 373 kJ mol-1.
With this value and the X-ray density several detonation parameter (heats of
explosion, detonation pressure, detonation velocity, explosion temperature) were
calculated with the EXPLO5 computer software. An incredible high value
(9516 m s-1) was obtained for the detonation velocity. Therefore experimentally
tests to determine the velocity of detonation were performed. In addition the use of
2 in solid propellant compositions was calculated and tested in combination with
oxidizers, e.g. ammonium dinitramide. Lastly the sensitivities towards impact,
friction and electrostatic discharge were determined with the BAM drophammer,
friction tester and an ESD machine.

Keywords: hydrazines, tetrazoles, crystal structure, energetic materials,
sensitivities

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